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Week 23 - Classifying Structural Forms and Functions

Exercise 1.1


Lesson 1.1: Classifying Structural Forms


ACTIVITY A: Classifying Structural Forms



Required Readings

Science in Action 7
pages 264 to 268
or

Science Focus 7

pages 270 to 280

A structure is something, which will support an object or a weight. A human skeleton is a structure because it supports flesh and muscles.

NATURAL FRAME STRUCTURES



In a frame structure, the skeleton like structure supports a mass of some sort. A spider web supports the spider and a fly. The fish skeleton supports the flesh of the fish. The veins of the leaf support the flesh of the leaf.

NATURAL SHELL STRUCTURES



In a shell structure, the hard outside structure supports (and often protects) the weight of an object on the inside. The nutshell supports and protects the nut. The eggshell supports and protects the egg. The honeycomb supports and protects the bee larvae and honey.

NATURAL SOLID STRUCTURES

Solid structures supports a mass just by its size. Trees are solid structures.




MAN-MADE FRAME STRUCTURES



What objects or mass are or will be supported by the three structures that you see in this picture?

MAN-MADE SHELL STRUCTURES



What objects or masses are or will be supported and protected by the four structures that you see in this picture?

SOLID STRUCTURES

What object or mass is supported by these structures?

Exercise 1.1A
Read the sections above and the required pages in your textbook before answering the following questions. Use the pop up key below to correct your work. 1. Frame Structures: What objects or mass are or will be supported by the three structures that you see in the pictures shown in the "Man-Made Frame Structures" section above?
<
>
2. Shell structures: What objects or masses are or will be supported and protected by the four structures that you see in this picture in the section titled, "Man-Made Shell Structures"?
<
>
3. Solid structures: What object or mass is supported by these structures?
<
>
4. What type of structure (solid, frame, or shell) is each of the objects listed below?
  • A tent < >
  • a pop can < >
  • a concrete barrier in a parking lot < >
  • a "jewel box" in which a CD is packed < >
5. Think about the characteristics of solid, frame, and shell structures, and about the importance of a structure's function. With these points in mind, give two example of each from the natural environment and the human made environment. Fill in the chart below.
Structural Form
Examples from the natural environment
Examples from the human made environment
Shell
< >


< >


< >


< >

Frame
< >


< >


< >


< >

Solid
< >


< >


< >


< >

Section: Key for Exercise 1.1 A


    Exercise 1.1A

Structural Form
Examples from the natural environment
Examples from the human made environment
    Shell

      A. Skeleton of an insect

    B. An ant colony underground

      A. Tent

    B. Containers, like milk cartons
    Frame

      A. Animal skeleton

    B. A flower

      A. house frame

    B. bridges
    Solid

      A. a snow drift

    B. A large rock

      A. Speed bump

    B. sandbag walls to prevent floods.
    Read the readings above and in your textbook before answering the following questions.
      • 1. Frame Structures: What objects or mass are or will be supported by the three structures that you see in the pictures shown in the "Man-Made Frame Structures" section above?

        The house frame supports the drywall, insulation and the roof. The bridge supports passengers and cars. The crane supports pipes or any object that may need to be moved.

        2. Shell structures: What objects or masses are or will be supported and protected by the four structures that you see in this picture in the section titled, "Man-Made Shell Structures"?

        The plane, the bus and the igloo all protect people and the can protects candy or tea.

        3. Solid structures: What object or mass is supported by these structures.

        Large masses of water are supported by these structures.

      4. What type of structure (solid, frame, or shell) is each of the objects listed below?
      • A tent
        A backpacking tent is a frame structure.
      • a pop can
        A pop can is a shell structure.
      • a concrete barrier in a parking lot
        A concrete barrier in a parking lot is a solid structure.
      • a "jewel box" in which a CD is packed
        A jewel box in which a CD is packaged is a shell structure
    • 5. Think about the characteristics of solid, frame, and shell structures and about the importance of a structure's function. With these points in mind, give two example of each from the natural environment and the human made environment. Fill in the chart below.
  • Note: your answers probably will be different, that is OK as long as they meet the requirements of the task

Tab: Exercise 1.2


Lesson 1.2: The Function of Structures


ACTIVITY A: Function and Aesthetics



Required Readings

Science in Action 7
pages 269 to 275
or

Science Focus 7

pages 282 to 285


Rube Goldberg

Designer? Engineer? No! Cartoonist. He loved to draw cartoons of large complicated machines, which would do simple tasks. Go to this web site to view the artwork gallery.

Form and Function

Before you got going this morning, I hope you sat down and had a bowl of cereal for breakfast. In doing so, you probably pulled out a bowl and a spoon. Have you ever wonder how many ways there are to make that bowl and spoon? What are the basic characteristics that all bowls and spoons have?

With anything that we create, we must first ask,what it will be used for? What will its function be? For the bowl, you will want to be able to fill it with a combination of solids and liquids, however you will want the liquid to surround the solids in the bowl and not drain away. The function of the spoon will be to bring the food to your mouth and it should work for both liquids an solids. So when you think of bowls and spoons the forms or designs which come to mind will consists of the same basic principals. The spoon will have a handle to hold onto and curved ladle for picking up food and placing it in your mouth. Because the spoon is intended to go into your mouth is should not be too big or too small.

So the form, the appearance or shape of a structure, that objects takes must following the function they are meant to serve. "Form follows function!" This principal can be applied to most things created on the planet. Even in nature, bird will create nests that serve the function of a shelter and a place to raise young.

It is rare that structures have only one function. Here are some common words used to describe the functions of objects.

  • Containing
  • Transporting
  • Sheltering
  • Supporting
  • Lifting
  • Fastening
  • Separating
  • Communicating
  • Breaking
  • Holding
  • Aesthetics (how something looks)

Aesthetics
"Why, those are a perfectly good pair of running shoes, why do you need to have the more expensive pair?"

I bet you have heard this before as you shopped for a new pair of shoes with your parents. This is the difference between basic form and function and aesthetics. Aesthetics is the term we use when discussing the look and beauty of a structure rather that its scientific or practical function. Your parents see a pair of shoes which meet the basic needs of protecting the feet and providing long wearability. You see another pair that also provides the basic functionality of the shoe, but the design fits with the current definitions of beauty and fashionable looks. It does not matter that this shoe costs twice as much - mom and dad are paying for them. This is the cost you are willing to pay to get a pair of shoes with high aesthetic appeal. In plain English that means trendy and stylish.

Parents are often accused by their children of being out of fashion or loosing their eye for aesthetics. In defense of parents, this is usually not the case. Many things around your home, were fashionable at the time they were purchased. Parents have just learned about the reality of money and being the most fashionable parents on the block is an expensive venture if it requires them to replace old structures and tools once they no longer look good. Aesthetics deal with the look of the structure rather than the function. It places more value on a structure if it looks good. Media and advertising deals mainly with the aesthetic appeal of a structure - "eye candy, as it is so called". The aesthetics of a structure appeal to the emotions of a person. Where a basic structure performs a basic "need", boosted aesthetics appeal to the human "want".
Exercise 1.2A - Complete in your lesson
Answer the questions below. Your work will be marked according to the marks stated.
/3 1. What are three basic functions a person should look for when buying a lawn mower?
<
>
/2 2. What are two basic functions of a hair brush?
<
>
/6 3. While watching TV or reading the newspaper, describe two ads. Choose one which focuses on the form and function of a structure and another which advertises the aesthetic appeal of a structure. What is each ad advertising? How do you know if the advertising is more about the function or the aesthetics?
<
>
/3 4. Now take a look at your running shoe. List as many functions of the running shoe as possible.
<
>
/6 5. Surf the Internet to find at least 3 pictures of different houses/human shelters. Identify what makes them different from your house. Also state how the specific design best suits the dwelling's unique function.
<
>

TOTAL /20

Tab: Exercise 1.3


Lesson 1.3: Human-Built Structures around the World


ACTIVITY A: Human Built Structures around the World



Required Readings

Science in Action 7
pages 276 to 279
or

Science Focus 7

pages 294 to 295

How did they do that?

Man is the only creature that can actually create large complicated structures to solve a problem. Some of these structures are amazing feats of engineering and others have taught us valuable lessons through their failure.

Browse through a complete library of "Building Big, Wonders of The World" which has links to a large selection of bridges dams, domes, skyscrapers and tunnels.

Why did they do that?




We think of failure as a bad thing but sometimes it can teach us valuable lessons. The Leaning Tower of Pisa is one of the most famous buildings in the world because it is slanted. Read the following passage from this website

"Even before it was finished 800 years ago, the Leaning Tower of Pisa - a masterpiece of medieval architecture - began to topple, shaken by earthquakes and sinking slowly into the unstable soil. Today, the top hangs just 16 feet over the base and collapse seems imminent. [There has been] follows a decade-long search for a solution to correct the lean and save the unique building. State-of-the-art computer models, ingenious experiments with models and a string of near-disasters eventually push an international committee of prominent engineers and architects into an 11th-hour decision."

Visit the following sites and research on your own to read about the "Leaning Tower of Pisa."

www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/pisa/
http://www.endex.com/gf/buildings/ltpisa/ltpisa.html


http://www.archiplanet.org/wiki/Leaning_Tower_of_Pisa
Exercise 1.3A - Complete Question 1 in your Lesson.
1. Choose one of the structures from the "Building Big, Wonders of the World" website and do additional research on that structure. Create a two paragraph report about it. Include a list of references and links that you used to collect your information. Do not copy and paste information (put it in your own words)! Include details about how the structure is built and what makes it special. Include some information about how the structure has impacted the people who live and work in and around it.
<
>

/20 This assignment will be marked by your teacher.

Answer the following questions about the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Use the pop up key below to correct your work.

2. When was construction on the tower started, when was it finished?
<
>
3. What is the function of the building?
<
>
4. What type of foundation was the building built on?
<
>
5. Why did the tower not fall down immediately?
<
>
6. What famous scientist conducted experiments at the Leaning Tower of Pisa?
<
>
7. Write, in your own words, how engineers are planning to correct the problem.
<
>

Section: Key for Exercise 1.3 A


      Answer the following questions about the Leaning Tower of Pisa.

      2. When was construction on the tower started, when was it finished?

      Construction began in 1173 but was interrupted several times. It was not officially finished until 1370.

      3. What is the function of the building?

      The building is a bell tower.

      4. What type of foundation was the building built on?

      "On August 9, workers lay the foundation stones for what will become the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Constructed of marble, lime, and stones, the tower is built in a circular ditch about five feet deep, on ground consisting of clay, fine sand, and shells."

      5. Why did the tower not fall down immediately?

      It is thought that if the building had been completed all at one time, it would have collapsed immediately, but because the ground was able to settle for many years when construction was interrupted it has slowly tilted and has not yet collapsed.

      6. What famous scientist conducted experiments at the Leaning Tower of Pisa?

      Galileo conducted experiments on gravity by dropping objects of different weights off the tower.

      7. Write, in your own words, how engineers are planning to correct the problem.

    Currently architect John Burland, a professor of soil mechanics has had great success with a soil extraction method. "It involves a special drill 200 mm in diameter, which drills down into the very soft soil just beneath the tower's foundations on the north side. The drill is designed so there's no disturbance to the ground on the way in, but when we pull it back out a bit, it leaves a cavity, which we have found closes very gently. As a result, the ground above it subsides a little bit and takes the tower with it." Note: your answer should be based on this factual information, but put into your own words

Site: AB Course Sharing Hub
Course: Science 7 LearnNet
Book: Week 23 - Classifying Structural Forms and Functions
Printed by: Guest user
Date: Saturday, 16 February 2019, 3:25 PM

 



Exercise 1.1


Lesson 1.1: Classifying Structural Forms


ACTIVITY A: Classifying Structural Forms



Required Readings

Science in Action 7
pages 264 to 268
or

Science Focus 7

pages 270 to 280

A structure is something, which will support an object or a weight. A human skeleton is a structure because it supports flesh and muscles.

NATURAL FRAME STRUCTURES



In a frame structure, the skeleton like structure supports a mass of some sort. A spider web supports the spider and a fly. The fish skeleton supports the flesh of the fish. The veins of the leaf support the flesh of the leaf.

NATURAL SHELL STRUCTURES



In a shell structure, the hard outside structure supports (and often protects) the weight of an object on the inside. The nutshell supports and protects the nut. The eggshell supports and protects the egg. The honeycomb supports and protects the bee larvae and honey.

NATURAL SOLID STRUCTURES

Solid structures supports a mass just by its size. Trees are solid structures.




MAN-MADE FRAME STRUCTURES



What objects or mass are or will be supported by the three structures that you see in this picture?

MAN-MADE SHELL STRUCTURES



What objects or masses are or will be supported and protected by the four structures that you see in this picture?

SOLID STRUCTURES

What object or mass is supported by these structures?

Exercise 1.1: Classifying Structural Forms

 


Exercise 1.2


Lesson 1.2: The Function of Structures


ACTIVITY A: Function and Aesthetics


Required Readings

Science in Action 7
pages 269 to 275
or

Science Focus 7

pages 282 to 285


Rube Goldberg


Designer? Engineer? No! Cartoonist. He loved to draw cartoons of large complicated machines, which would do simple tasks.

Go to this website to view the artwork gallery.

Form and Function

Before you got going this morning, I hope you sat down and had a bowl of cereal for breakfast. In doing so, you probably pulled out a bowl and a spoon. Have you ever wonder how many ways there are to make that bowl and spoon? What are the basic characteristics that all bowls and spoons have?

With anything that we create, we must first ask,what it will be used for? What will its function be? For the bowl, you will want to be able to fill it with a combination of solids and liquids, however you will want the liquid to surround the solids in the bowl and not drain away. The function of the spoon will be to bring the food to your mouth and it should work for both liquids an solids. So when you think of bowls and spoons the forms or designs which come to mind will consists of the same basic principals. The spoon will have a handle to hold onto and curved ladle for picking up food and placing it in your mouth. Because the spoon is intended to go into your mouth is should not be too big or too small.

So the form, the appearance or shape of a structure, that objects takes must following the function they are meant to serve. "Form follows function!" This principal can be applied to most things created on the planet. Even in nature, bird will create nests that serve the function of a shelter and a place to raise young.

It is rare that structures have only one function. Here are some common words used to describe the functions of objects.

  • Containing
  • Transporting
  • Sheltering
  • Supporting
  • Lifting
  • Fastening
  • Separating
  • Communicating
  • Breaking
  • Holding
  • Aesthetics (how something looks)

Aesthetics
"Why, those are a perfectly good pair of running shoes, why do you need to have the more expensive pair?"

I bet you have heard this before as you shopped for a new pair of shoes with your parents. This is the difference between basic form and function and aesthetics. Aesthetics is the term we use when discussing the look and beauty of a structure rather that its scientific or practical function. Your parents see a pair of shoes which meet the basic needs of protecting the feet and providing long wearability. You see another pair that also provides the basic functionality of the shoe, but the design fits with the current definitions of beauty and fashionable looks. It does not matter that this shoe costs twice as much - mom and dad are paying for them. This is the cost you are willing to pay to get a pair of shoes with high aesthetic appeal. In plain English that means trendy and stylish.

Parents are often accused by their children of being out of fashion or loosing their eye for aesthetics. In defense of parents, this is usually not the case. Many things around your home, were fashionable at the time they were purchased. Parents have just learned about the reality of money and being the most fashionable parents on the block is an expensive venture if it requires them to replace old structures and tools once they no longer look good. Aesthetics deal with the look of the structure rather than the function. It places more value on a structure if it looks good. Media and advertising deals mainly with the aesthetic appeal of a structure - "eye candy, as it is so called". The aesthetics of a structure appeal to the emotions of a person. Where a basic structure performs a basic "need", boosted aesthetics appeal to the human "want".

Exercise 1.2: Function and Aesthetics

Exercise 1.3


Lesson 1.3: Human-Built Structures around the World


ACTIVITY A: Human Built Structures around the World


Required Readings

Science in Action 7
pages 276 to 279
or

Science Focus 7

pages 294 to 295

How did they do that?

Man is the only creature that can actually create large complicated structures to solve a problem. Some of these structures are amazing feats of engineering and others have taught us valuable lessons through their failure.

Browse through a complete library of "Building Big, Wonders of The World" which has links to a large selection of bridges dams, domes, skyscrapers and tunnels.

Why did they do that?




We think of failure as a bad thing but sometimes it can teach us valuable lessons. The Leaning Tower of Pisa is one of the most famous buildings in the world because it is slanted. Read the following passage from this website

"Even before it was finished 800 years ago, the Leaning Tower of Pisa - a masterpiece of medieval architecture - began to topple, shaken by earthquakes and sinking slowly into the unstable soil. Today, the top hangs just 16 feet over the base and collapse seems imminent. [There has been] follows a decade-long search for a solution to correct the lean and save the unique building. State-of-the-art computer models, ingenious experiments with models and a string of near-disasters eventually push an international committee of prominent engineers and architects into an 11th-hour decision."

Visit the following sites and research on your own to read about the "Leaning Tower of Pisa."

www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/pisa/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pisa

http://www.archiplanet.org/wiki/Leaning_Tower_of_Pisa

Exercise 1.3: Wonders of the World

Section 1 Notes

You have two options for your Section 1 Quiz - a multiple choice quiz or a written response quiz. You may choose to write the multiple choice or the written response. You only need to write one of them, so the choice is up to you! You are allowed to try both quizzes if you want, but it is not required.

The quiz attempt with the highest grade will be the one that is recorded on your report card.

The multiple choice quiz has 10 multiple choice, matching, and true/false questions. You have 15 minutes to complete it. As soon as the quiz submitted it will be auto-graded and you will receive a grade immediately.

Click the image above to start your quiz

The written response quiz has 5 short answer questions. Your responses must give a complete and detailed answer to the question. You have 20 minutes to complete the quiz. This quiz needs to be manually marked by your teacher, so you may have to wait a few days to get feedback and a grade.

Click the image above to start your quiz